It seems there’s a pill for every type of disease imaginable these days. And when it comes to vitamins, in particular, we’re a supplement-happy bunch. Americans spend $14 billion a year on vitamins and supplements. And around 40 percent of adults in the U.S. take multivitamins regularly. But are regular multivitamin users actually benefiting from them? The research might suggest otherwise.The Multivitamin Debate
The “should I/shouldn’t I take a multivitamin” question began heating up back in the 1970s when Nobel prize-winning scientist Linus Pauling wrote Vitamin C and the Common Cold. In it, Pauling recommended taking 3,000 milligrams of vitamin C every day to ward off colds and prevent degenerative and sometimes incurable diseases. This was quite the stark contrast to the 60 mg recommended daily allowance (RDA) at the time. And boy did people listen. Sales of vitamin C quadrupled, and an estimated 50 million people in the U.S. were supplementing with vitamin C by the mid-70’s. A range of studies followed to discredit Pauling’s claims, but that did little to discourage vitamin marketers from taking advantage of the hype.
Today, the debate rages on. We use dietary supplements for a variety of reasons, mostly to improve or maintain overall health. And many of us aren’t getting enough basic nutrients from sources like fruits and vegetables. Research shows a significant amount of people in the U.S. had total usage intakes below the recommendation daily amount for vitamins A, C, D, and E (34, 25, 70, and 60 percent, respectively), calcium (38 percent), and magnesium (45 percent).
So we take vitamin supplements to help make up for these nutritional deficiencies. The question remains, do these supplements actually work or are they doing more harm than good?
Should You Take a Multivitamin?
Here’s where things get tricky. There’s been plenty of research on the efficacy of multivitamins. Problem is, the science is sending mixed signals. For example, researchers in one study of 38,772 women found that multivitamins may be associated with an increased risk of dying. Another study found people who take multivitamins do not live any longer on average than those who don’t.
But what about multivitamins and cancer? One study showed multivitamins may help reduce prostate cancer risk by eight percent in men 50 years and older. However, others have found an increased risk of cancer associated with high antioxidant intake.
And when it comes to heart health, a recent study of U.S. male physicians found multivitamins do not protect against major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death from cardiovascular disease.
There’s still fierce debate on the effectiveness of multivitamins. For some, specific supplements have a clear benefit. For example, women who are or may become pregnant need folate, a B vitamin that’s important for lowering the risk of having a baby with conditions spina bifida or anencephaly (400 micrograms per day according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). People over 50 might also experience low levels of vitamin B12 and could benefit from supplementation.
Regardless of which side of the fence you’re on when it comes to multivitamins, there’s research to support your argument. If you’re struggling to eat the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables per day (which varies depending on your age, sex, and activity level), then taking a daily multivitamin can be a good insurance policy, and it appears the benefits outweigh the potential harm. But if you live a healthy and active lifestyle and eat a balanced diet, you probably won’t get much benefit from taking one.